Employment vs Exclusion (9:00)
Mr. Wolfgang Bliem
Project Manager of the Institute for research on qualifications and training of the Austrian economy.
Mr. Stanislav Ranguelov
Coordinator of the Employment and Social Policies and European Social Fund for Spain in the DG of Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion of the European Commission.
Mr. Janne Savolainen
Senior specialist in Employment and Entrepreneurship Department.
Mr. Víctor Roncel Vega
Technical Advisor in the Council of Educational Department of Spain in Belgium
Ms. Marcella Phelan
Assistant Director Planning, Commissioning and Partnerships in Children’s Services Ealing Council. Exyonet Program in the United Kingdom.
Questions for the panel
- Why is there “over qualification” in many European Countries?
- Is the same to be qualified than to be employable?
- When do young people must enter the layout market?
- Which is the relationship among academic failure, labor exclusion and social exclusion?
- Does the educational model influence in the capacity of young people to find a job?
- Why each day are there more young people from middle class that reach socialexclusion?
- Why are there more young people that do not work or study? How are we supposed to understand this phenomenon?
- Does the society transmit an obligation to be successful really soon, which creates frustration and a loss of expectation for the young people’s future?
The countries that have established systems of apprenticeship or vocational training in secondary education enable a large number of young people to combine their secondary studies with a traineeship. This means an unemployment rate depression as mentioned above (7.2% in Germany and 10.1% in Austria). On the other side there are the countries whose young population prefers to seek an employment after their studies, loosing the permeability between the two processes and resulting in a long-period before accessing the labor market (the aforementioned rates of 49.6% in Spain, and 40.9% in Italy).
Therefore, the earlier the job search begins the more options to consolidate a job with age. Due to the fact that a young person has less experience, less knowledge about the labor market and fewer contacts, the educational and social model that causes a late entry into the labor market or at least in the active employment research brings about a throttle effect in the high rate of youth unemployment.
Curriculum vs Talent (10:45)
Ms. Jane Murphy
Staffing Programs Manager, Google’s EMEA.
Ms. Alice Kooij
Employment and International Youth Policy Officer. Ambrassade/Flemish Youth Council.
Ms. Laura López-Bech
Education Policy Officer in European Youth Forum AISBL.
Ms. Marisol Pastor Nervión
Manager of the technical cabinet of the Foundation Universidad Empresa.
Questions for the panel
- What suggests that the academic failure of Spain is 23% and of Finland only 8%?
- Is the problem because of the education spending or the educational model?
- What differences are between the effort culture and the sacrifice culture?
- Are the young people able to recover the capacities that weren’t stimulated during the childhood?
- How is establish the relationship between the competences that the companies require and the competences that the young people acquire in their training period?
- Do the companies look for talent or curriculum?
- Are the people with better grades the one that are successful in their companies?
- Which are the keys for professional success: knowledge or aptitudes?
- How do companies measure the talent?
- Are geeks the talents of the innovative companies like Google?
- What is the difference among a geek, a young offender and a young in risk of exclusion?
Young people are one of the groups that are most suffering from the crisis, with a high unemployment rate, which is one of the major risk factors for falling into social exclusion. Moreover, there are high rates of school failure, making it difficult for these young people the opportunity to gain employment, thereby aggravating the risk of social exclusion.
Youth unemployment data: average of the euro area is 22.3%, and the 28 countries of the European Union, 20.7%, ranging from 7.2% in Germany, and 10.1 % and Austria and Denmark, 50.1% in Greece, 49.6% in Spain, and 40.9% in Italy.
Academic failure data: 12% of Community average, ranging from 23% in Spain, 13% in France, 5.7% in Sweden
Therefore there are several situations to consider: firstly, despite having many youngsters that have training, they have great difficulty in accessing the labour market, and moreover, there is a significant group of young people who are “expelled from educational system” with low qualifications, and that happen to be “at the end of the queue to access the labour market”.
There is a clear relationship between educational systems (how we train and prepare young people), and the labour market (how they have access to employment and companies seeking), and the dysfunctions between both are the ones that generate this situation:
- We train young people regardless of labour market needs, not only in terms of knowledge but also skills and abilities (the problem may become structural, as many of these skills should be acquired in childhood: capacity to communicate, analyze problems, engage, empathize, social skills, and others).
- When educational systems do not seek to develop the capabilities that we have and each one aspires to fulfil programs regardless individuality, many children and young people get “excluded” from the system
The societies with the most standardized educational systems are less dynamic, generated less employment, and more social exclusion.
Finland is a study model and has a high success rate. Some of the keys to its success are:
- The high academic qualifications of teachers, and the unusual fact that the best teachers are placed in the first years of teaching in primary To be a teacher you need to have a very highly rated evaluation, this system works also in high school and college. Education is a profession with prestige and teachers have great authority in school and in society. The equivalent of Teaching in Finland is a difficult, demanding and long qualification, which also includes personal interviews, so that teachers are well prepared professional and vocational
- Education is customized: Since the first courses we intervene to support students with special needs, so as to prevent their difficulties increase with age and the percentage of school failure are The pace of learning of each child is respected and flees tests and activities
- Curiosity and participation is rewarded: The imagination and entrepreneurial capacity are prized in Finnish society, there are many artistic and creative professionals and also in the fields of technology and engineering. This is also encouraged in education, where creativity is valued, experimentation and collaboration over memorization and lectures
- They have a very comprehensive strategy in education, including equal importance for humanities, reading, physical education, arts, and mathematics, “that each develops their potential in what they are best” and also the standardized tests are of little
Skills most valued by the market
While education systems prioritise the “tight knowledge” of some materials, the market demands other skills and competencies. This situation is exacerbated in the case of young people at risk of exclusion or belonging to disadvantaged groups, where the system does not give them basic training or skills that the market demands. Among them we can mention: Languages, computers, teamwork, flexibility and adaptation, creativity, public speaking, managing relationships, be an entrepreneur, among others, causing an even greater gap for these young people, the educational system does not work these skills with them, neither their families.
There is a clear disconnect between skills demanded and the skills acquired by the youngsters, both in their official training route, as when in a situation of unemployment and continue to form unrealistic demands of the market.
Talent versus Intelligence
Another issue to consider is the still prevailing paradigm in relation to the “intelligence”. Measurement model based on standardized, from a set of values that marginalizes all other than “average normal” test, sets an impractical weighting in the workplace. The test coefficients underpin the idea that intelligence is an innate factor in humans, and uses a limited number of parameters to measure human abilities.
Many of today’s educational systems are structured to respond to needs of the era of industrialization, pursued consideration of a limited set of skills to meet demand, and not in the new needs of both individuals and companies that hire them.
If we change the paradigm of an innate and limited intelligence, to the search for talent, young people in risk of exclusion have more opportunities.
Training vs Employment (15:15)
Sir Ken Robinson
Internationally recognized authority in creativity and innovation in education and business
Mr. Pasi Sahlberg
Professor of Practice at Harvard University’s Graduate School of Education in Cambridge, MA, USA
Mr. Luis Fábrica
Chairman Meridians International
Questions for the panel
- How would it be the ideal school? How would the classrooms be like? Which would be the role of the teacher? Which would be the subjects?
- How influence this model into society and in the labour market?
- How would you think this model would influence in the young offenders and young people in risk of exclusion?
- How could it be integrated this model into a minors centre?
- And to a marginalized zone in risk of exclusion?
- Which must be the role of the parents that are also in exclusion in this model?
- Would affect this model of school to the Social Services?
- Does social exclusion make people less creative?
- Do you think that the behavioural control of violent young people can improve with the development of their capacities?
- How would the program for the development of their capacities be?
In this panel we would like to take a close look at the theories and approaches of Sir Ken Robinson, Mr. Pasi Sahlberg and Mr. Luis Fábrica, focusing the debate in two aspects: a reflection on the education (of young people) and on the fulfilment of the people through the development of their capacities, especially on the young people in risk of exclusion and in young ex offenders.
There is a clear relationship among the educational system, society and the labour market: those societies with the most standardized educational systems are less dynamic which limit their capacity to generate employment, and also to make the young people that train more employable.
This situation get worse for the young people in risk of social exclusion, with learning difficulties, with high rates of academic failure, which once excluded from the system, it is hard to reincorporate. We think that moving these theories to the internment centres and in general the development process of the judicial measures may contribute to a higher success in the normalization and social integration processes.
¿How should be the educational model that must train the young people for answering the new challenges they are going to face in the next decades? An educational system that consider training as a set of disciplines interconnected, an ecosystem of knowledge where each element interrelates with the others, and where the training itinerary is personalized for each young so they can develop all their potential, where they do not get their wings clipped or get excluded from the system.
Throughout these and other questions of interest we will discuss and debate, to get to know how the educational models from the future should be and how these models can answer the concern of the young people and especially the young people in risk of exclusion and the young offenders.